Web development is an evergreen field where opportunities are always plenty. Since its emergence in the early 90s, the development industry has evolved and thrived in various ways and domains. Today, in the 21st century, web development remains one of the most sought-after skills. To begin a career in this domain, mastering web development languages is essential. However, with the various programming languages that exist today, you may get confused about choosing which languages to learn, especially if you are a beginner.
This article aims to introduce you to the 15 best programming languages for web development in 2022. We will discuss the use cases, features, pros, and cons of each language so that by the end of the blog, you will have a better understanding of different programming languages.
Table of Content
- What is a Programming Language
- Types of Programming Languages
- Why do Some Programming Languages Work Better than Others
- 15 Best Programming languages for Web Development in 2022
- 5 Tips to Find the Best Web Development Languages to Learn
What is a Programming Language
Any language is, in general, a means for communication. Programming language is a computer language, which is used for communicating with computers. It is a set of instructions (or code) that’s written to perform specific actions. Through the programming language, developers are giving the computer instructions in a way the machines can understand and follow. All programming languages have their own syntax, structure, and rules that must be followed in order to execute the codes without errors.
Types of Programming Languages
Each programming language is different in its concept, structure, and syntax. On an abstraction level, we can classify the programming languages into three types– low-level language, middle-level language, and high-level language.
1. Low-level language
Low-level language is machine-dependent language. As a result, computers can interpret it quite fast, but it is difficult for humans to read. An advantage of low-level language is that the processors do not require compilers to run low-level programs, so the run time is fast. Low-level language can further be divided into:
- Machine level language: Machine language is a first-generation programming language and is represented in binary or hexadecimal format. Also called machine code, it does not require a translator to convert the code and can directly be executed. This makes the execution comparatively fast.
- Assembly level language: Assembly level language is a second-generation programming language and the instructions are symbolic and readable for humans. An assembler is required to convert the assembly level codes into machine codes. Less memory and reduced execution time are the advantages of assembly-level language.
2. High-level language
A high-level language is a machine-independent language. These are closer to human languages and use words, making it easier for developers to write programs. Although the high-level language is easier to read, write, and maintain, it requires a compiler to convert the codes into machine language. High-level language can further be divided into:
- Procedural-oriented programming (POP) language: POP language is based on the concept of the procedure call. It is derived from structured programming. In POP language, a program is divided into procedures called routines/functions. This allows for a code to be reused in different parts.
- Object-oriented programming (OOP) language: OOP language is based on objects, that is, the programs are divided into parts called objects. A significant feature of OOP language is its implementation of real-world concepts like inheritance, polymorphism, etc. OOP codes are easier to use, execute, modify, and debug. They are also fast and efficient.
- Natural language: Machines use natural language to understand and interpret human language. It is used to execute tasks like translation, named entity recognition, automatic summarization, etc.
3. Middle-level language
As evident from the name, middle-level programming language or intermediate programming language stands between low-level and high-level programming languages. It is a user-friendly language that supports high-level programming but at the same time remains close to machine-level language.
Why do Some Programming Languages Work Better than Others
You may have noticed that not every programming language works the same way. Some tend to be faster than others. The reason behind this is associated with the level of abstraction of each language. Essentially, it defines things that the language takes care of automatically and things that need to be done manually. Some of the factors are:
- Automatic memory management can cause languages to be slower than the ones that do not enforce it.
- If a language has to be compiled, it will take more time as the source code has to be translated into machine code.
- The efficiency of the compiler impacts the speed.
- Languages that use an interpreter to translate can cause the software to be slow as it executes the program line by line. It also needs start-up time.
15 Best Programming languages for Web Development in 2022
Now that we have gone through the basics of programming languages, let’s take a look at the 15 best programming languages for web development in 2022.
HTML or HyperText Markup Language is the foundation of web development that every developer needs to be familiar with. A popular skill for web developers, it is the 2nd most commonly used language in 2020, according to a survey by Stack Overflow. Although it is not a full-fledged programming language, it is the standard language used to create web pages.
- HTML provides the structure for the web pages and is responsible for the proper formatting of text and images.
- It allows the use of templates so designing a webpage can be done easily.
- It is lightweight and fast.
- Quite easy to learn and implement.
- Supported by every browser.
- Free and accessible.
- Static language, so not possible to create dynamic pages.
- Need to write a lot of code for developing a simple web page.
Like HTML, CSS is another basic language that every developer must know. CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets and is often used with HTML to govern the style of a webpage. The combination of HTML and CSS is called the mother of all programming languages. The size, color, and positions of all elements in a web page are determined by CSS.
- It has a cascading style, meaning throughout a webpage, an applied style will cascade down from parent to child.
- It supports responsive web design.
- CSS upholds consistency due to its cascading nature.
- Simple and beginner-friendly.
- Improves page loading speed.
- Simplifies customization of web pages.
- Possibility of cross-browser issues.
- Confusion due to multiple levels like CSS, CSS2, and CSS3.
- It is a lightweight programming language.
- The syntax is simple and easy to learn.
- Besides web development, it can be used for developing mobile apps, games, and web servers.
- Easy to integrate with other languages.
- It is simple and versatile.
- No multiple inheritance support.
- Less secure compared to other languages.
An open-source language that is easy to learn and use, Python is one of the most popular languages used for web development. For beginners as well as experienced programmers, Python is an ideal choice. It is used for backend development, data science, web app development, and automation. It has a huge collection of standard libraries, which makes programming using Python easier for developers.
- It has dynamic typing capabilities which makes it easy for developers to create complex websites that need constant content changes.
- It is an efficient backend web development language and integrates with other programming languages like C, C#, and Java.
- It can be associated with popular web development frameworks like Django and Flask to create web-based applications.
- OOP characteristics simplify programming.
- Extensively scalable.
- Emphasizes code readability.
- Interpreted programming language, hence slow.
- Not suitable for developing mobile applications.
In 1990, Sun Microsystems developed Java to add features to the C++ language. It was built on the Write Once Run Anywhere principle. Today, it is owned by Oracle and is one of the most widely used backend languages for web development. It follows the OOP concepts, has open-source feature-rich libraries, and is a good language to learn due to its moderate learning curve and high productivity.
- Java supports multithreading so multiple threads can be executed concurrently implying maximum CPU utilization.
- It supports vertical and horizontal scaling with only slight code changes.
- It can handle massive amounts of data and is highly secure.
- Easy to learn, write, and debug
- It is portable
- It is robust and versatile
- It consumes more memory
- Slow compared to languages like C or C++
- Has several inbuilt debugging tools that make development simple
- It is a type-safe language, hence type-related errors are reduced
- Supported by Visual Studio Code, Microsoft’s free code editor.
- Cross-platform and cross-browser compatibility
- Supports OOP concepts
- Increased code readability
7. Objective C
Objective C or C is a simple and general-purpose language that was developed in 1972. It is a popular language and often one of the first choices of programmers who are beginning to step into the development domain. Objective C is majorly used to code for the iOS operating system.
- Supports dynamic typing and therefore has excellent flexibility
- Used with Cocoa or Cocoa Touch framework
- Supports dynamic memory allocation
- Super easy to learn
- Fast, powerful, and flexible
- Can perform complex calculations
- Error detection is difficult
- Does not support OOP concepts
An extension of Objective C, C++ is a middle-level programming language that was developed in 1980. It is a simple language and is quite useful and easy for beginners to handle. In addition to what Objective C offers, C++ supports features like object-oriented programming, exception handling, and type checking.
- Supports OOP concepts like abstraction, inheritance, and encapsulation.
- Has a robust standard library
- Quick and efficient compiling mechanism
- Simple and portable
- Highly scalable
- Large community support
- No automatic garbage collection
- Complexities associated with pointers
SQL, or Structured Query Language, is a standard database language that is used in combination with another programming language. As a database query language, it is used to manipulate databases. It comes third in the list of most used programming languages by Stack Overflow, with more than 50% of developers using SQL for programming.
- It is used to create, read, update and delete records in databases.
- It is widely used in business intelligence tools.
- SQL has a simple syntax.
- It is easily accessible.
- It is highly functional.
- It is portable.
- It works well only with small databases.
- Scaling is expensive and time-consuming.
PHP or Hypertext Preprocessor is an open-source scripting language used for backend development. It is mostly used for developing dynamic, data-heavy websites and is an interpreted language. It is one of the most popular web page languages, and frameworks like Drupal and WordPress make use of PHP.
- It is supported by many third-party extensions like .NET, MySQL, and Apache.
- It can output images, PDF, text, animations, and HTML.
- It is compatible with cloud services.
- Easy to learn and use.
- Can be used on all major operating systems.
- Has great community support.
- Error handling features are not excellent.
- Development using PHP only can be slow.
C# (C Sharp) is an object-oriented programming language developed by Microsoft. It was originally developed for the .NET framework to build Windows applications. Today it is extensively used in backend development, game development, and mobile app development. It can be used not just on Windows, but also on Android, Linux, and iOS platforms-making it one of the best website coding languages in 2022.
- It has a strong memory backup facility and avoids memory leaks
- It is equipped with a rich set of libraries enabling faster development
- It is the only language used by Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF)
- Ideal for all types of web development
- Complete integration with .NET library
- Compilation and execution is fast
- Difficult to handle multi-thread applications
- Less flexible
Angular is one of the most used front-end languages that have MVC architecture and allows dynamic modeling. It is an important programming language that supports the development of complicated applications. For UI development, Angular makes use of HTML, so it is easy to understand. With Angular, you can develop projects with extensive functionality and appealing design most efficiently.
- It utilizes templates to make development quick and easy.
- It uses extensions like Snippet and Angular Command Line Interface to simplify the development.
- Using Angular Filters, data is filtered before reaching the view.
- Minimum coding is required.
- Supports two-way data binding.
- Better functionality and improved performance.
- Steep learning curve.
13. Ruby Rails
Ruby is a popular backend web development language that supports procedural, functional, and object-oriented programming. It is one of the most recommended languages for beginners to learn. Combined with the Ruby on Rails framework, the language is used for web development extensively.
- It supports various Graphical User Interface (GUI) tools
- Favors all major platforms like Windows, Mac, and Linux
- Has prominent features like automatic garbage collection, centralized package management, custom dispatch behavior, etc.
- Has many helpful tools and libraries
- Large and active community support
- Has strong adherence to web standards
- Codes written in Ruby are difficult to debug
- It is comparatively slow
Golang or Go is an open-source programming language developed at Google in 2007. It is similar to C in syntax and allows for the development of efficient and secure web applications. Go is ideal for network programming, developing data pipelines, and machine learning packages.
- It is equipped with inbuilt testing tools
- Supports multithreading and can execute several processes concurrently
- It has excellent memory safety features like garbage collection for automatic memory management
- Quite easy to learn
- Has a powerful standard library
- Offers high performance
- Inefficient error handling capabilities
- Lack of flexibility
Scala is grouped in the Java family and is one of the latest additions to it. It has all the features of Java plus some additions which help to overcome some of the cons of Java. Scala is a great choice for developing data analytics solutions.
- Supports concurrent programming and execution of procedures in parallel
- Has great IDE support
- Highly functional programming with better code quality
- Easy to learn
- Concise code
- Greatly scalable
- The built-in compiler is slow
- Limited community support
Whether you are beginning your programming career or looking to enhance it, these fifteen web development languages will prove to be of immense help. With programming languages, a key aspect is that even when web development trends emerge and fade away, the languages remain pertinent. So whichever language you choose to master in 2022, will stay relevant for many years to come and aid your programming career. So, choose a language that piques your interest and have fun learning!
5 Tips to Find the Best Web Development Languages to Learn
After reading about the 15 programming languages you can learn in 2022, are you feeling a little confused about which ones to choose? All the languages we discussed in the previous section are notable. But to help narrow down your choice, we have prepared five questions for you to contemplate. By the end of it, you will have an idea about the best web development languages for you.
1. What are your goals?
What is your goal behind learning programming languages? Do you want to learn because you enjoy coding or are you preparing for a career? If your objectives are non-career related, you can choose any! If preparing for a career, you need to be more explicit and ask yourself what exactly you want to do.
Think about whether you want to get into front-end development or backend development. Do you want to build mobile apps? Are you interested in data visualization, automation, or anything particular? Is IoT your area of interest? Whatever it is, be specific about your goals and choose what’s appropriate for the same.
2. What is the learning curve?
Are you willing to dedicate much of your time and effort to learning or do you have only finite time and resources? If you want to learn a language quickly and easily, you should choose the simple ones that you can master with average effort. On the other hand, if you have the time and resources to learn the comparatively harder languages, you can go ahead with it.
If you are a beginner in the programming world, we suggest you get started with simple languages like HTML, Python, C++, or Java. Once you learn these, you will get a strong base on which you can develop your skills further.
3. What are the popular web development languages?
And the benefit of learning popular languages is that they will stay in demand in the upcoming future as well. Programming languages don’t go out of trend rapidly, so it will be a good investment.
4. Which are the highest salaried languages?
Income is one of the main aspects of choosing a career. If you want to make a high income from your career as a developer, understanding the most paying programming languages can help you choose the ones for you. The highest-paid programming languages for 2021 are Rust, Go, Scala, and Python. Although these languages may have a steep learning curve, we can assure you that it will be worth the effort!
5. What are the developers saying?
If you are still not a hundred percent sure and want more inspiration, go online and search what the developers are saying. There are several active developer communities on the internet from where you can get hands-on information. Take a look at what the developers are talking about – which languages do they find most appealing, what pros and cons do they observe with different languages, which ones are going obsolete – read them all. Knowing these will help you gain more clarity as you will be listening to the words of experts.
Do you have a better idea about what to choose now? Great! Remember, always start with one language. That does not mean you should only learn one, you can learn as many languages as you want. But, when you are getting started on the journey, it’s important to not overwhelm yourself. So, start with a single programming language, and when you have a solid foundation and feel confident about exploring more, continue adding more languages to your list!
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